When referring to any of the results of our analysis and/or its concept and design, please cite us accordingly:
Global Plastics Policy Centre (2022) March A., Salam, S., Evans, T., Hilton, J., Fletcher, S. (editors). Global Plastics Policy Review. Revolution Plastics, University of Portsmouth.
Singapore Sewerage and Drainage Act 1999 (Revised in 2020)View the policy document
Key FindingsView the policy document
This policy aims to provide for and regulate the construction, maintenance, improvement, operation and use of sewerage and land drainage systems, to regulate the discharge of sewage and trade effluent and for matters connected therewith. The primary driver for this policy was political, multiple agencies used to manage sanitation and cleansing services and water pollution related issues, and the Public Utilities Board (PUB) was responsible for adequate and reliable supply of water to domestic and industrial users (Tortajada & Joshi, 2014). The aim was to empower PUB to maintain and manage public sewerage systems, public sewers and storm water drainage systems, and drains and drainage reserves, in addition to its functions related to supply of water. As highlighted in part 2, the Public Utilities Board (PUB) under the Ministry of Sustainability and the Environment (MSE) is responsible for the administration of this Act.
There was insufficient evidence available to complete the evaluation framework at the time of the assessment. Few clear indicators for the assessment of policy have been given, therefore it is difficult to determine whether all objectives of the policy have been reached. However, some objectives would have been met because PUB was able to close the water loop and build new sources of water through producing high-grade reclaimed water (NEWater) and desalination, and can now meet 40% of Singapore’s water demand, a figure that is expected to rise to 55% by 2060 (Agence France-Presse, 2021), and some evidence suggest that enforcement is generally effective despite some notable exceptions (Menon, 2019; PUB, 2022; Wong, 2019).
(Uploaded in August 2023)
Through an analytical framework, we've reviewed over 100 plastic policies. These reviews determine the effectiveness of policies in reducing plastic pollution and we offer recommendations in light of this evidence, to enhance future policy making. You can find out more about our methods on our methods page.Methods