Global Plastic Policy Reviews

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When referring to any of the results of our analysis and/or its concept and design, please cite us accordingly:
Global Plastics Policy Centre (2022) March A., Salam, S., Evans, T., Hilton, J., Fletcher, S. (editors). Global Plastics Policy Review. Revolution Plastics, University of Portsmouth.

Kenya Plastic Bag Ban Notice No. 2356 – The Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act

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Contribution to reducing plastic pollution:
Effectiveness of meeting own objectives:
Strength of evidence: Moderate Available Evidence
Reviewed under framework: Yes

This policy has banned the use, manufacture and import of all plastic bags used for commerce and household packaging. Exceptions include garbage bin liners, medical waste, construction and food packaging. Those caught manufacturing or using plastic bags face up to four years in jail, or a fine of up to $40,000 (4.4 million Kenyan shillings), some of the strictest penalties in the world.

As a result of indiscriminate disposal of plastics and poor waste disposal systems that led to severe flooding, this ban was heavily influenced by social media awareness campaigns that drew the attention of government policy makers. Previous attempts at banning these plastic bags failed but despite protests from the Kenyan Association of Manufacturers, this ban was successful with an observed 80% decrease in use of single-use plastic bags (NEMA, 2019) as a result of public support and stakeholder engagement.

However, concerns have been raised surrounding the rise in illegal plastic bags due to weak enforcement and porous borders. Kenya is seeking environmental leadership in the region to support economic growth and improve tourism. A number of related policies followed – The Wildlife Conservation and Management Act, 2019, Ban of Single Use Plastics in Protected Areas, June 5 2020.

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We are confident in our research, however, not all evidence is made publicly available which may affect the outcome of the reviews. Let us know if you have research or evidence that can contribute to our analysis, or a policy you think would be valuable to review!

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Our methods

Through an analytical framework, we've reviewed over 100 plastic policies. These reviews determine the effectiveness of policies in reducing plastic pollution and we offer recommendations in light of this evidence, to enhance future policy making. You can find out more about our methods on our methods page.

Methods

Guidance

In light of our findings, we've created targeted guidance for Policy Makers, Citizens and Businesses.

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We are confident in our research, however, not all evidence is made publicly available which may affect the outcome of the reviews. Let us know if you have research or evidence that can contribute to our analysis, or a policy you think would be valuable to review!

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