When referring to any of the results of our analysis and/or its concept and design, please cite us accordingly:
Global Plastics Policy Centre (2022) March A., Salam, S., Evans, T., Hilton, J., Fletcher, S. (editors). Global Plastics Policy Review. Revolution Plastics, University of Portsmouth.
Japan Act on the Promotion of Sorted Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging (Packaging Recycling Act)View the policy document
Key FindingsView the policy document
This policy focuses on packaging and containers and is an EPR-based, recycling and refill policy. Municipalities are responsible for implementation and this has led to a lack of consistency and confusion for the public.
The policy has helped to accelerate the reduction of weight for containers and packaging and the introduction of products with no aluminum lining (OECD, 2016; and references therein). There are published reduction rates of 60% for plastic packaging, but there has been a decrease in refillable bottles (Yamakawa, 2013). Recycling rates for PET bottles are very high at 90% but for other plastics are low with a move to incineration rather than landfill. Export of PET waste has also increased significantly (Tasaki, 2008).
The act was revised in 2006 to enhance measures for reducing the use of plastic bags and create a funding mechanism to provide economic incentives to municipalities to perform higher levels of separation of waste packaging and to strengthen punishments and fines against packaging businesses that do not meet their obligations (Tasaki, 2008). Small producers are exempt, which reduces the policy effectiveness (Johannes et al, 2021), and the regulations only cover household waste, but excellent levels of separation of waste by households has been reported (Nakatani et al., 2020).
(Reviewed in Mar 2023)
Through an analytical framework, we've reviewed over 100 plastic policies. These reviews determine the effectiveness of policies in reducing plastic pollution and we offer recommendations in light of this evidence, to enhance future policy making. You can find out more about our methods on our methods page.Methods