When referring to any of the results of our analysis and/or its concept and design, please cite us accordingly:
Global Plastics Policy Centre (2022) March A., Salam, S., Evans, T., Hilton, J., Fletcher, S. (editors). Global Plastics Policy Review. Revolution Plastics, University of Portsmouth.
Japan Packaging Recycling ActView the policy document
Key FindingsView the policy document
This policy focuses on packaging and containers and is an Extended producer responsibility based, recycling and refill policy. Municipalities are responsible for implementation and this has led to a lack of consistency and confusion for the public, however 90% of PET bottles are recycled.
The policy has helped to accelerate the reduction of weight for containers and packaging and the introduction of products with no aluminium lining. There are published reduction rates of 60% for plastic packaging, but there has been a decrease in refillable bottles. Recycling rates for PET bottles are very high at 90% but for other plastics are low with a move to incineration rather than landfill. Export of PET waste has also increased significantly.
The act was revised in 2006 to enhanced measures for reducing the use of plastics bags and create a funding mechanism to provide economic incentives to municipalities to perform higher levels of separation of waste packaging and to strengthened punishments and fines against packaging business that do not meet their obligations. Small producers are exempt which reduces the policy effectiveness.
The regulations only cover household waste but has seen excellent levels of separation of waste by households.
Through an analytical framework, we've reviewed over 100 plastic policies. These reviews determine the effectiveness of policies in reducing plastic pollution and we offer recommendations in light of this evidence, to enhance future policy making. You can find out more about our methods on our methods page.Methods